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طبقه‌بندی هویج بر اساس شکل با استفاده از پردازش تصویر، شبکه عصبی مصنوعی و ماشین بردار پشتیبان مقاله

نویسنده:

نویسنده مسئول:

علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت علوم)/ISC (14 صفحه - از 295 تا 308)

چکیده:

ارزیابی کیفی محصولات کشاورزی از عوامل بسیار مهم در ارتقای بازارپسندی آن ها است. عملیات درجه بندی و بسته بندی محصولات کشاورزی توسط کارگران با مشکلات فراوانی مثل افزایش هزینه، زمان، نیروی کارگری، تلف شدن محصول و غیره روبه رو است. سامانه های پردازش تصویر روش های نوینی هستند که در بخش کشاورزی کاربردهای مختلفی از جمله درجه بندی محصولات دارد. هدف از این پژوهش پیاده سازی یک سامانه ماشین بینایی برای طبقه بندی هویج بر اساس شکل با استفاده از روش پردازش تصویر می باشد. برای این منظور تصویر ۱۳۵ نمونه هویج در شکل های مختلف (معمول و غیرمعمول) تهیه گردید. پس از پیش پردازش تصاویر، ویژگی های مختلف شکل از تصاویر استخراج شد. در فرآیند انتخاب ویژگی، طول، وسعت، محیط، گردی، ناهمگنی مرکز سطح، ناهمگنی عرضی و تعداد ریشه به عنوان ویژگی های کارا انتخاب گردید. از روش های هوش مصنوعی و ماشین بردار پشتیبان برای طبقه بندی نمونه ها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که دقت درجه بندی روش شبکه عصبی مصنوعی پرسپترون چندلایه از ماشین بردار پشتیبان بیشتر و برابر با ۵۰/ ۹۸ درصد می باشد. می توان گفت که روش پردازش تصویر و ماشین بینایی جهت ارتقا روش سنتی درجه بندی هویج کارآمد می باشند.

Introduction Carrot is one of the most important agricultural products used by millions of people all over the world. Quality assessment of agricultural products is one of the most important factors in improving the marketability of agricultural products. In the market, carrots with irregular shapes are not commonly picked by customers due to their appearance. This causes to remain those carrots in the market for a long time and then decay. Therefore, adopting an appropriate method for sorting and packaging this product can increase its desirability in the market. Packaging and sorting of carrots by workers bring about many problems such as high cost, product waste, etc. Image processing systems are modern methods which have different applications in agriculture including sorting of different products. The aim of this study was to implement a machine vision system to classify carrot based on their shape using image processing. Materials and Methods In this study, 135 carrot samples with different shapes (56 regulars and 79 irregulars) were selected and their images were obtained through an imaging system. First, an expert divided the carrots into, two categories according to their shapes. The carrots which had irregular shape were those with double or triple roots, cracked carrots, curved carrots, damaged carrots, and broken ones and those with upright shapes were considered as regular shape carrot. After imaging, image processing was started by an algorithm programmed in Matlab R2012a medium. Then some shape features such as length, width, breadth, perimeter, elongation, compactness, roundness, area, eccentricity, centroid, centroid non-homogeneity, and width non-homogeneity were extracted. After the selection of efficient features, artificial neural networks and support vector machine were used to classify the efficient features. Results and Discussion The number of neurons in the hidden layers of artificial neural network models were varied to find the optimal model. The highest percentage of the correct classification rate (98.50%) belonged to the structure of 2-10-16, which in fact has 16 neurons in the input layer, 10 neurons in the hidden layer and 2 neurons in the output layer. This model has also the lowest mean squared error and the highest correlation coefficient of the test data, 0.90 and 2.52, respectively. This network was a feed forward back propagation error type and the activation functions in hidden and output layers were Tansig and Perlin, respectively. The correct classification rate of the support vector machine method was 89.62%. The confusion matrix of support vector machine method showed that out of 56 usual samples, 42 specimens were correctly identified but 14 samples were mistakenly classified as unusual carrots. All 79 carrots with unusual shapes were correctly classified. The results obtained from the comparison of the performance of the two methods, the neural network method has a good superiority than the support vector machine for classification. Conclusions In this research, the classification of carrots was based on its appearance. At first the physical characteristics and appearance attributes of the carrot samples were extracted and processed using image processing. Image analysis was included the classification of samples into two usual and unusual shapes, which to classify the extracted properties two methods were used: the artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The classification accuracy of the ANN method was higher than SVM. It can be said that the image processing method can be used to improve the traditional method for grading the carrot product in new ways. So, the marketability of the product will be increased, and thus its losses will be reduced. Also, the image processing technique can be used as a simple, fast and non-destructive alternative to other methods of extracting geometric properties of agricultural products. Finally, it can be stated that image processing method and machine vision are effective ways for improving the traditional sorting techniques for carrots.

کلیدواژه ها:

درجه بندی ، هویج ، ماشین بینایی ، هوش مصنوعی ، شکل

Shape ، Carrot ، Grading ، machine vision ، Artificial intelligent


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