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مقایسه خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی هفت جمعیت گیاه دارویی پای خر (Tussilago farfara L.) کشت شده در شرایط آب و هوایی تهران


علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت علوم)/ISC (17 صفحه - از 433 تا 449)


گیاه دارویی پای خر با نام علمی Tussilago farfara L.، چندساله و از تیره کاسنی (Asteraceae) می‌باشد. پای خر مصارف دارویی دارد و از زمان‌های بسیار دور برای درمان سرفه، مشکلات ریوی و خلط استفاده می‌شود. در این تحقیق برای کشت پای خر، از ریزوم‌ این گیاه استفاده شد و آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام گرفت که تیمارها عبارت از هفت جمعیت از شهرهای فیروزکوه، نور، دیلمان، کلیبر، نمین، دماوند و پل زنگوله گیاه پای‌خر کشت شده در تهران بودند. صفات مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی مانند سطح برگ، تعداد گل در بوته، قطر گل، طول ساقه گل‌دهنده، ارتفاع گل، وزن خشک گل، طول ریشه و میزان فتوسنتز اندازه‌گیری شد. برگ و گل گیاهان کشت شده برای بررسی فیتوشیمیایی مانند فنول و فلاونویید کل آماده گردید. نتایج مربوط به گیاهان کشت شده نشان داد که اختلاف معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد بین جمعیت‌ها وجود داشته و جمعیت پل زنگوله از لحاظ برخی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی مانند تعداد گل در بوته با میانگین 15، بیشترین قطر و ارتفاع گل به ترتیب با میانگین 12 و 16 میلی‌متر، وزن خشک گل با میانگین 2/5 گرم و همچنین بالاترین میزان فتوسنتز، به عنوان جمعیت برتر در بین گیاهان کشت شده مشخص گردید. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که بین فنول و فلاونویید کل جمعیت‌های مورد بررسی اختلاف معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد وجود داشته و جمعیت نور با میانگین 242 میلی‌گرم گالیک اسید بر گرم عصاره خشک بیشترین مقدار فنول کل را داشت و عصاره برگ جمعیت نور با IC50 برابر با 271، بیشترین فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی را نشان داد.

Introduction: Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.) from Asteraceae family is a perennial plant. T. farfara is native and widespread from Europe to Western and Northern Asia and North Africa. Coltsfoot distributed in wet mountainous regions of Iran, such as Azerbaijan, Tehran and Northern provinces. Its flowers and leaves have been used traditionally for the treatment of cough, bronchitis and phlegm disorders. T. farfara leaves and flowers have expectorant activity and are used for chronic dry cough and various pulmonary diseases. The extracts of T. farfara were shown to exhibit various activities, such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Biologically active agents of T. farfara have been studied due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Materials and Methods: For morphological study, the rhizomes of seven Iranian coltsfoot populations were collected in August 2016 from different regions of Iran including Pol-e zangholeh, Damavand, Firoozkooh, Nur, Deylaman, Kaleybar and Namin. The collected samples were planted in the same condition during 2016-2017 in research field of Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran (51º10ʹ23ʺ N, 35º44ʹ17ʺ E), with a randomized complete block design experiment and three replications. The average annual rainfall and temperature of cultivating place is about 220 mm and 16.4 ºC. In order to study the morphological characteristics between different samples, traits such as the number of flowers per plant, stem height, flower length, flower diameter, flower dry weight, root length, root dry weight, leaf area and leaf dry weight had been measured. Morphological traits were measured under the same conditions and for this research, were used ruler, caliper and balance. The leaves and flowers were prepared for phytochemical studies. DPPH method has been used to evaluate the antioxidant activity, and the IC50 was used to compare the antioxidant properties. The absorbance of the samples was measured at 517 nm with ELISA reader. The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was calculated by the following formula: % In=[(Ab-As)/Ab]×100, where In is DPPH inhibition, Ab is the absorbance of the blank, As is the absorbance of samples including extracts and BHT as a positive control. The phenolic contents of different extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and the aluminum chloride method was used to measure total flavonoid. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between all evaluated traits in studied populations (p ≤0.01). Pol-e zangholeh population of T. farfara, has shown the best performance for all morphological traits. The results of the flowers per plant showed that the Pol-e zangholeh population was the highest and the Deylaman population had the lowest number of flowers. The maximum length of the stem was related to the Pol-e zangholeh population while the population of Namin had the smallest amount. Comparison of flower diameter showed that the Pol-e zangholeh population had the largest diameter and Nur population of all the smaller. The results of the flower length showed that the maximum flower length was related to the Pol-e zangholeh population and Deylaman population had the smallest amount of flower length. Comparison of mean of flower dry weight showed that the Pol-e zangholeh population of T. farfara had the highest value while the population of Nur had the smallest amount. Pol-e zangholeh population of T. farfara, considered as superior populations and its flowering time were earlier than the others. It was found that there is a significant difference (p ≤0.01) between different populations. This variation may be due to Population differences of People, either due to differences in environmental conditions or sometimes due to the interaction of the population and the environment. Our results also indicate the presence of comparable genetic potentials of T. farfara in these population for any further cultivar development. Analysis variance showed that there was significant difference between populations for total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity (p ≤0.01) and the Nur population had the highest total phenolic content and highest antioxidant activity. Comparison of antioxidant activity of different extracts from leaves and flowers of T. farfara showed that the most antioxidant activity was related to leaf extract of Nur population with IC50 271 µg/ml closer to BHT (33 µg/ml) as a synthetic and industrial antioxidant. The least amount of this activity was related to Kaleybar leaf extract with IC50 888 µg/ml. Nur population showed the highest total phenol content with 242 mg GAE/g dried weight. Damavand population showed the highest total flavonoid content with 40 mg QE/g DW extract. Conclusion: Our results indicate the presence of comparable potentials of T. farfara in these populations for any further cultivar development. Study of antioxidant activity in different habitats shows that Nur habitat is a suitable place for the cultivation of T. farfara to increase the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity.

کلیدواژه ها:

بررسی فیتوشیمیایی ،Tussilago farfara L ،فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی ،فنول کل

Antioxidant activity ،Coltsfoot ،Morphological study ،Phytochemical studies ،Total flavonoid

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