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ارزیابی عملکرد طرح‌های آبخیزداری بر وضعیت سیل خیزی حوزه آبخیز سد سیوند، استان فارس

نویسنده:

نویسنده مسئول:

علمی-پژوهشی (وزارت علوم)/ISC (‎23 صفحه - از 83 تا 105 )

چکیده:

در ایران با وجود پنج دهه از اجرای طرح‌های آبخیزداری و حفاظت خاک، همچنان روش ارزیابی کمی و کیفی مناسبی جهت بررسی این اقدامات ارائه نشده است. تغییر کاربری، چرای مفرط دام، فرسایش خاک، تغییر هندسه آبراهه‌ها ازجمله عوامل هستند که در اکوسیستم موجب به هم خوردن تعادل هیدرولوژیک آبخیز می‌شوند. عدم تعادل سیستمی در حوزه آبخیز شهری خرمبید سبب تشدید سیلاب‌های شهری، افزایش فرسایش و رسوب‌گذاری خاک در پشت سدهای مخزنی و تخریب اراضی کشاورزی و جاده‌ها و روستاها و در ادامه کاهش توان تولید، منابع تولیدی شده است. این تحقیق با هدف ارزیابی عملکرد پروژه‌های (مدیریتی، بیولوژیک و سازه‌ای) بر رواناب خروجی و منابع آب در آبخیز خرمبید در استان فارس انجام شده است. در این تحقیق ابتدا به‌منظور تعیین طول مسیر حرکت جدید آب ارتفاع چکدم‌ها، طول مخزن و شیب آبراهه‌ها در زیر حوضه‌هایی که پروژه‌های سازه‌ای انجام شده است اندازه‌گیری شد. سپس زمان تمرکز جدید با استفاده از روش برانسی-ویلیامز محاسبه شد. در گام بعدی اطلاعات لایه پوششی خاک از قبیل درصد تاج پوشش گیاهی، گروه‌های هیدرولوژیک و وضعیت پوشش گیاهی برای تعیین شماره منحنی و حداکثر توان نگهداری و نفوذ در خاک به دست آمد. با استفاده از روش SCS و تحلیل منطقه‌ای حجم رواناب‌ برای زیر‌حوزه‌های مختلف بعد از اجرای عملیات آبخیزداری استخراج گردید. نتایج نشان داد که پروژه‌های آبخیزداری منجر به افزایش متغیرهایی ازجمله زمان تمرکز و طول آبراهه اصلی و کاهش 41 و 72 درصدی در حجم سیلاب سالانه به ترتیب در زیر حوضه‌های A و C شده است.

1-Introduction Floods have historically been the most common, deadliest and most expensive hazards among natural hazards. The risk of flooding has increased over time, especially since countries have allowed changes in the land uses and land coves in floodplains and plains. In Iran, like the other flood-prone areas of the world, the severity of floods and the extent of their damages have increased dramatically in recent decades. Land use and vegetation play an important role in the production of runoff due to its effect on infiltration, erosion, evapotranspiration and transpiration. 2-Methodology Khorrambid watershed having an area of ​​88.7 km is a part of the Sivand Dam watershed. The average rainfall of this basin is 228 mm and it has a semi-arid climate in the view of Domarten. Khorrambid metropolitan basin consists of 12 smaller sub-basins in the study area with three main waterways named A, B and C that cross the city upstream of Khorrambid and pass through the city. In this study, the design, purpose, and efficiency amount of the flood and runoff output amount have been evaluated and finalized from the hydrographic network. The set of Management, Biological and Structural works carried out in the Khorrambid urban basin of the Sivand Dam Branches include: management excavation, piling, seeding, Dry working forage, Dry Stone Structures, rock and PVC mesh, rock and earth dams. Detailed studies and implementation of Khorrambid urban watershed was carried out in 1999 and the implementation of watershed management projects started in 2002 and by the end of 2010 about 33% of the projects were implemented in the study phase. At the same time, the evaluation process regarding the effect of these projects on flood and runoff control took place. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of projects (management, biological and structural) on the runoff and water resources in Khorrambid watershed in Fars province. In this study, first, the height of the dams, the length of the reservoir and the slope of the canals were measured under the basins where structural projects were carried out to determine the route of the new water movement. Then the new concentration time was calculated using the Branse-Williams method. In the next step, soil cover layer data such as the percentage of canopy cover, hydrological groups and vegetation status were obtained to determine the number of curves and maximum holding and infiltration potential in the soil. Then using SCS method and Hyfa software, modeling the flood volume and outflow runoff for sub-basin were estimated. 3- Results and Discussion By analyzing the results of statistical analysis of changes it can be said that there were many changes in all land use and land cover as well as the implementation of structural and biomechanical projects in the studied area. To investigate the effect of land use and structural changes on the hydrological regime of the studied basin, SCS method was utilized. This model was formulated using GIS techniques. The results showed that due to the increase in rangeland land use (from poor to good condition) and the construction of watershed structures, flooding in the area has decreased in case there were 24-hour rainfall. This amount of runoff reduction in the basin A and C was 41% and 72%, respectively. 4- Conclusions It is suggested that by evaluating the projects, if the performance of these projects could be evaluated in appropriate ways and from various technical and engineering aspects, the results would lead to finding the causes of the proposed operation failure and presenting appropriate solutions to address them. On the one hand, this could improve the quality of implementation of watershed management activities, on the other hand, it would increase operational efficiency, and the learnt lessons would enhance future plans. On the other hand, it is recommended that since watersheds are in fact considered as a natural-human system as well as a planning and work unit, comprehensive management of these watersheds is essential for achieving sustainable development goals. Watershed management is a complex process whose practical goals should be in line with the promotion of stakeholders` interests and stakeholders` engagement at all levels of planning and decision making. Integrated Watershed Management requires a flexible process that taking into account the challenges and constraints of the Watershed System, makes good use of its opportunities and potential conditions to ensure the social and economic well-being of its stakeholders while maintaining the security of water, food and environment in order to meet its goals of sustainable development.

کلیدواژه ها:

سیلاب ، ارزیابی ، فارس ، زمان تمرکز ، سد سیوند ، پروژه‌های آبخیزداری

watershed management projects ، time of concentration ، SIVAND DAM ، Assessment ، Fars Province ، flooding


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